Qatar and UAE buy European football clubs

It’s becoming more and more likely that European clubs will be owned by wealthy foreigners rather than local companies who have been hit hard by the global financial crisis.

Money is no issue in the planning for Qatar#39;s 2022 World Cup Doha Port stadium.

As the region’s nations establish themselves as sporting powers, countries such as Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have pumped millions into sponsoring football clubs.

Qatar and UAE weathered the economic downturn thanks to the oil industry, so are now set to lead expensive deals in the football world — and not just for the love of the game.

Read: ‘Miracle’ club Eibar a blueprint for soccer’s future?

The Middle East has enjoyed a rapid rise within the world of football, aided by Qatar’s successful bid to host the 2022 World Cup.

The Middle East has spent $1.5bn on acquiring stakes in European football clubs and billionaires from the region have purchased Manchester City and Paris Saint-Germain, helping to transform the English and French champions into European powerhouses.

Read: Lionel Messi: The most expensive football player in the world?

According to professor Simon Chadwick from the University of Coventry, Qatar’s bid to establish global prominence through football is similar to the U.S. It’s a level of spending matched by Qatar, with companies from the gulf kingdom investing an average of $49.1m on each shirt deal it makes with European football clubs.

Money is no issue in the planning for Qatar’s 2022 World Cup Doha Port stadium.

Money is no issue in the planning for Qatar#39;s 2022 World Cup Doha Port stadium.

A report published by Repucom states that in 2014 alone, brands from the UAE spent $163 million on shirt sponsorship deals.

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“In the case of Qatar, its 2030 Industrial Vision has sport as a fundamental pillar of its strategic development as a nation,” he told CNN. “Just as the United States, through Silicon Valley, has positioned itself at the heart of the global IT industry, so sport is being used in the same way by emerging nations.”

Story highlights

Qatar and UAE’s wealth make them big players in football

The Middle East has spent $1.5billion on European football

Is football the next Silicon Valley?

Football has now become a booming business in the region, but investors are tending to hand money to European clubs, not their own.

Whilst these investments provide much needed financial stability for these clubs, they are also muscling out local sponsorship. establishing itself within the technology industry.

The Launch of India’s First Sports Bike: the Yamaha YZF-R15

What’s New in the R15?

Here are the specifications Yamaha released at the 2008 Auto Expo and at its official site.

A newly developed 150cc liquid-cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, single-cylinder fuel-injected engine

An all-aluminum “DiASil Cylinder” produced by an exclusive Yamaha casting technology

Eco-friendly performance that clears the next-phase Bharat 4 emissions standard(

The “Delta box frame” known for excellent rigidity balance(

Impressive “2-eye” multi-reflector headlight design in the YZF-R series image

They dream of nothing less than riding an R1 (a Yamaha YZF-R1) in the streets of India! We all dream of moving at the speed of wind through the streets of Cochin Kaloor and Marine Drive … Well, this dream seems distant. I had the privilege of interact with the distributors of the R1; their confidence levels were much above the expected, but since the average Indian youth cannot spend Rs 10.5 lakhs for a bike, the benefit sof the R1 has not extended to the majority.

What would the average Indian fan expect from designers like Yamaha?

But the Yamaha YZF R-15 will fulfill this dream. This bike will set a benchmark in India. No later Yamaha model inspired the same passion, though bike lovers admired the sexy style and performance of the Yamaha R1 and the Yamaha R6, and the motorcycle racer Valentino Rossi became another legendary name associated with Yamaha.

If this can be true about a 125-cc bike, then how much more applicable it will be for a model that is set to challenge the world’s biggest two-wheeler market!

Let’s wait and welcome the real “R star”…

Yamaha YZF-R15: India’s First Sports Bike

As Yamaha celebrates the 10th anniverasary of the R series across the globe, I hope this anniversary will give a better gift to India, the biggest two-wheeler market in the world, in the form of the YZF-R15!

The release of the YZF-R15 will really shake up the Indian two-wheeler market. Company officials have kept the specifications as secret as possible, but the different rumors agree on one point; the R15 will be 150 cc.

Update: a second “V2″ version of the YZF-R15 was released in India in 2011.

. But what Yamaha can contribute is nothing less than what they promised in the latest Auto Expo in New Delhi: The launch of the YZF-R15! Company officials say it has the DNA of the R1.

Years back Yamaha launched another outstanding bike in the 125-cc segment in Asian markets: the R125. Yamaha initiated the process months earlier with the launch of the Yamaha R1 in selected showrooms. And we felt that our young riders still think like the generations before when it comes to motorcycles. Then it will be fantastic!

During the ’80′s, riding the Yamaha RX100 was a great passion for all bike lovers. All young boys loved that bike and its melodious sound. This bike alone, the RX100, made Yamaha a household name in India. “There are only a few real super sport bikes in today’s 125-cc class. They like serious machines with exciting performance, and many of them dream of a bike like the R6.”

Some sources say that R15 will be exactly the same as the R125. “We made the new YZF-R125 deliberately as a real sport bike and the similarity to its bigger sister the YZF-R6 is intentional,” explained Hiroshi Komatsubara, President of the Yamaha RD development centre in Milan, Italy

Where are the Casino Jobs?

Casinos typically host a variety of games, including everything from blackjack and poker to craps and roulette to baccarat and slot machines. These employees make sure that casino guests are acting accordingly and that the day-to-day operations of the casino go smoothly.


Where Should I Look for These Jobs?

There are many places to look for casino jobs, both in America and abroad. In fact, many places throughout the world have become known solely for their high-class casinos and gambling industries (think Caesars Palace in Las Vegas or Monte Carlo in Monaco).

Las Vegas Strip, Las Vegas, Nev. – $1.050 billion

Tunica Resorts, Miss. – $997.02 million

Biloxi, Miss. – $833.5 million

Shreveport, La. – $1.36 billion

St. For instance, most casinos also house a hotel, restaurants, shopping areas, and an entertainment venue âEUR” all of which provide employment opportunities.

The most popular jobs at a casino are those that deal with gambling.

United States – $58,030 million

Asia Pacific – $41,259 million

Europe, Middle East, Africa – $16,452 million

Canada – $4,045 million

Latin America – $594 million


Top 11 Local Markets for Casinos

The top 11 local markets for casinos âEUR” based on projected 2011 revenue âEUR” include:

What Types of Casino Jobs Are There?

There are a ton of opportunities when it comes to casino jobs, both in terms of the positions available and where the jobs are located.

While casinos are mainly associated with the gambling activities that go on there, which is perhaps the biggest part of the casino business, there are usually many other aspects to a casino. – $2.092 billion

Connecticut – $1.448 billion

Detroit, Mich. – $774.33 million



Top Five Regions for Casinos

According to PricewaterhouseCooper, the top five regions for casinos âEUR” based on projected 2011 revenue âEUR” include:

Macau, China – $28,379 million

Las Vegas, Nev., United States – $10,300 million

Singapore – $5,479 million

France – $3,957 million

Atlantic City, N.J., United States âEUR” $3,330 million

Australia – $2,847 million

South Korea – $2,512 million

Germany – $2,081 million

South Africa – $1,740 million

United Kingdom – $1,209 million

Poland – $1,126 million


Top 10 US Regions for Casinos

The top 10 regions in the United States for casinos âEUR” based on 2009 revenues âEUR” include:. Casino employees are responsible for manning these games, except for slot machines, which are self-operated.

Casinos also employ a number of behind-the-scenes employees, including everything from managers to cashiers to security guards. – $5.5 billion

Atlantic City, N.J. – $3.943 billion

Chicago, Ill. Louis, Mo. – $779.65 million

Boulder Strip, Las Vegas, Nev

The Premier League of Debt

Two clubs — Manchester

United and Liverpool — have had 1bn of debt loaded on to them by the leveraged

buy-outs of North American business owners, who have made the clubs responsible

for paying their own borrowings.

UEFA president Michel Platini has been warning against financial

excess for years. Among the 72 clubs in the Football League’s remaining

three divisions, there have, since then, been 53 insolvencies.

Waging wars

Alan Switzer, a director of Sports

Business Group, believes it’s vital for the clubs to find a way to

restrain this inflation.

At Manchester City, Sheikh Mansour of Abu Dhabi has spent £400m on his project to launch the club into the European elite. The Premier League has always

accepted the argument that leveraged buy-outs are, in general commerce, legal

– even common.

A yawning inequality opened up between the clubs which rolled

in those riches, and those left behind as the top clubs pulled up the distribution

drawbridge. An asterisk by the club’s name denotes

that it was deducted nine points for failing to pay its debts, and was relegated.

Despite clamour from the clubs’ fans, outgoing

chairmen, the former Labour government and the former chairman and chief

executive of the Football Association, Lord Triesman and Ian Watmore, there are

no rules preventing the leveraged takeovers. If a club is to be bought out of

administration by a new owner, any money owed to a footballer, or to another football

club, must be paid in full. At Chelsea, the Russian oligarch Roman

Abramovich has paid in £726m, mostly to fund transfer fees and wages for players

who could win the Premier League, since he took the club over in 2003.

Yet that principle doesn’t apply to ‘ordinary’

creditors, who have to settle for a fraction of what they’re owed. At Portsmouth,

successive owners loaned in £52m. The Premier League table for 2009-10 shows that Chelsea, the

oligarch’s club, claimed the championship by one point from

loan-soaked Manchester United, but the season’s uniqueness will

forever be recorded at the bottom.

In 2008-09, the most recent period for which clubs’

accounts are published, Deloitte’s Sports Business Group reported the

Premier League overall increased its revenue by £100m to more than £2.5bn, yet

operating profits more than halved to £79m and the proportion of turnover paid

to players increased to 67 percent, a record. When one — Sacha Gaydamak — ran out of

money, the club collapsed.

The SBG expects wages growth to outstrip revenue increases

again in 2009-10, making the business model for clubs potentially untenable.

Says Switzer: “This will further reduce operating profitability, a

decline that cannot continue indefinitely. The leagues say this is to preserve competition, to

stop clubs signing players they cannot afford, then laying them off when the

money runs out.

In the face of all this, the question remains: how, in a

league brimming with money like never before, has a club fallen insolvent, and

the 20 clubs in total loaded themselves with £3bn of debt?

The fact that a Premier League club had gone bankrupt even

as such a deal was brokered demonstrated that all was not well with English

football’s finances, and has exposed the curious moral compass with

which the sport negotiates the wider world.

Portsmouth, 2008 FA Cup winners and a member of the world’s

richest league since 2003, became the first Premier League club to collapse

into insolvency in February. Its ‘financial fair play regulations’,

introduced in May, require clubs to break even from 2012-13.

The answer varies between clubs. Portsmouth’s

list of creditors include the familiar ranks of local businesses, HMRC, the

local authority, police and ambulance services and the charity St John Ambulance, which asks only for expenses.

All have resulted from paying players too much in the

attempt to compete with richer clubs, “living the dream,”

in the famous lament of Leeds United’s former chairman, Peter

Ridsdale, after its borrowings unravelled.. Clubs have the opportunity, via the

revenue uplift from the new broadcast deals, to get wage levels down to a more

sustainable share of revenue. It remains to be seen whether they grasp it.”

Since then the Premier League clubs have secured remarkably

lucrative deals, principally from selling the live match rights exclusively to

BSkyB and from the commercial fruits of the game’s subsequent boom.

Scudamore and his consultants sold the overseas rights for £1.2bn. This is leadership aimed at stopping European football, in

its richest ever boom, drowning under its addiction to ‘living the

dream.’

Almost all the other clubs’ debts are owed to

owners, usually in interest-free loans, who fund their clubs beyond the clubs’

true means in order to compete. Add this to £1.9bn contracts for the domestic live rights with Sky and

ESPN, and highlights with the BBC and that’s a total £3.1bn the 20

clubs will earn from television alone in the three years from this August until

2013.

Yet the spectacle of a Premier League club falling into

adminstration was almost surreal. Even as Portsmouth were plummeting into inexorable

descent, the Premier League’s chief executive, Richard Scudamore, was

notching up the next round of record-breaking overseas TV deals, booming on the

English league’s popularity in more than 200 countries worldwide.

The Premier League’s planned measures to make its clubs

more financially responsible have been eclipsed by UEFA, European football’s

governing body. Those total wage costs ‘ £1.3bn

‘ are by far the largest expense football clubs have, and without regulation

of any kind to restrain them, the players and their agents have successfully

bid them up every time the league’s TV deal has increased.

The Premier League, formed in 1992, was originally a

breakaway, by the clubs in the First Division of the Football League who did

not want to share the forthcoming satellite TV bonanza with the clubs in the other

three divisions.

Over-leveraged and over here

Dividing the spoils

The Premier League operates a ‘football creditors’

rule’ for clubs that fall insolvent

Quick sand: Welcome to Irish beach racing at Laytown

“I’ve never seen anything like it. Twenty years ago marked its bleakest year, with three equine fatalities and two riders seriously injured.

“There truly is nothing like it, it’s truly unique,” says Kevin Coleman, who was born and brought up in Laytown and is one of a small team that runs the meeting.

Ride into the sunset

“My first memory of the racing is coming down to the beach as a child and playing football,” he recalls. Pasola Festival, Indonesia

Belgium’s former ambassador to Ireland, Alain Guillaume, was so drawn by a picture of Laytown in the Embassy that he felt compelled to visit.

3. “The game would start with six of us and then end with 26 by the time various people had finished their tea.

The jockey turned photographer

The jockey turned photographer

“We don’t know what Neptune will throw at us on a particular date,” Coleman says.

Major safety changes were brought in, and Coleman says organizers had to plead with Ireland’s racing authorities to keep holding the event.

Ocean therapy

The jockey turned photographer

Building the course is a race against time. White Turf, Switzerland

The Aga Khan visited in the 1950s, the actors from movies “The Crying Game” and “Michael Collins,” both of which were filmed in Laytown, are believed to have attended, while Neil Hannon, singer with The Divine Comedy, has been a regular.

Circles in the sand

Horses for courses

“I think it’s the only race meeting in the world that can truly be described as unique. To have horses racing out in the natural environment is wonderful.”

If you overlook Laytown beach, a mere 30 miles north of the capital Dublin on Ireland’s east coast, you would usually see golden sand stretching far and wide, the tide pulsing in and out of shore, the elements battering the coastline and the occasional dog walker.

Star attraction

1. Palio di Siena, Italy

Tide is high

Champion trainer

The jockey turned photographer

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Tent town

“During the end of the summer, you’d gradually see the beach taking shape for the racing.

“The racing is pretty ordinary really,” Coleman admits. “They’re all here for the same thing as us, aren’t they?”

4. Luminarias Festival, Spain

The racing was allowed to carry on and, 146 years since the first meeting at Laytown Racecourse, the event goes from strength to strength — the Guinness flows, the music plays and hooves thunder in the sand.

Read: The world’s craziest horse festivals

The jockey turned photographer

Racegoers from all over the globe have attended the September event, including musicians, film stars and royalty, while top trainers and leading jockeys have also played their part.

“It’s really something,” he said. Entrance is the same price for everyone, just $10, while you can place a bet with bookmakers there.

HIDE CAPTION

Tragedy brings change

That is not merely setting up the venue for the event but battling the forces of nature — the past year the coastal erosion has been even more noticeable. It’s the antithesis to the pomp and pageantry of Royal Ascot …

HIDE CAPTION

Coleman hopes there will once again be notable names in attendance.

Celebrities, though, are treated no differently to any other patrons — who come from as far afield as Australia and the United States.

Riding high

5. But come rain, shine or even wartime, Laytown has almost always gone ahead.

Sun, sea and turf

Sign of the times

The jockey turned photographer

“We wouldn’t know who most of them were and anyway we’d leave them be,” says Coleman. In this role (which he has had since 1998), I realize there is no mystery, just a lot of logistics and hard work!”

But don’t expect to see horses of the caliber of Kentucky Derby winners at Laytown.

On the beach

Relaxation on the hoof

The jockey turned photographer

“I thought he’d say it was a magical experience but he just told me it was ‘slow, slower than other years.’ “

Thousands flock each year to see the novelty of a full race meeting on a beach

Star jockeys and celebrities are among the throngs that come to Laytown each year

Racing at Irish course dates back to 1868 and usually runs come rain or shine

Safety measures have been in place since tragedy struck in 1994

“It’s quite clear that when they arrive at a racetrack that they’re relaxed and that they’re ready to just give everything they’ve got,” Snaith said. But it’s a bit less formal.”

Take a punt

HIDE CAPTION

“Other changes meant only horses over the age of four could compete, and horses were not allowed to wear blinkers,” he adds.

The magic numbers

(CNN) — The going is always soft and the only permanent building is a toilet block. When the tide goes out, organizers shovel up and pat down the sand to create the racing line, but such are the elements that occasional pools of surface water can remain, which some horses don’t mind but others despise — merely another nuance to the racing at Laytown.

Its last cancellation came in 2002 when a deluge caused storm waters to overspill, making it no longer safe to start the racing.

Long view

Back then, the horses used to charge out to sea, with the field turning back on themselves in a semicircle.

But for a few hours each year, as has been the custom ever since 1868, it becomes the site of arguably the world’s most unique annual racehorse meeting.

The jockey turned photographer

Rain or shine

The jockey turned photographer

On Thursday there will be six races, each with a maximum of 10 horses and all run over six to seven furlongs, across the width of the beach.

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

The jockey turned photographer

2. I think there’s beach racing in Spain but this is the only one that completely adheres to the rules of racing. welcome to Laytown Racecourse.

“One of the jockeys never rode again,” says Coleman ruefully.

As magical and mystical as the event sounds, it has not been without its own setbacks. Soma-Nomaoi Festival, Japan

Riding the ocean waves

It is a meeting that comes with everything you’d expect at a normal course — the racing rails, winning post, a grandstand, jockey weighing room (though in a marquee) and even now a tent for corporate facilities.

Fun and games

Bottoms up!. “I remember speaking to Colin Keane, an up-and-coming jockey, last year, and asking him what it was like to ride.

Forces of nature

Unlike Royal Ascot, where top hat and tails are the order of the day for attendees, Coleman merely asks that punters, of which there are typically about 5-6,000 each year, aim for smart casual.

“But there was such a mystery about it too as a child, how it all appeared and suddenly happened

Arsenal to Unveil Musco Lighting’s Innovative LED Lighting Solution

Musco has nearly 40 years of experience lighting some of the world’s premier facilities.

For more information on Musco’s innovative lighting solutions, visit: www.musco.eu.

Arsenal to Unveil Musco Lighting’s Innovative LED Lighting Solution

“We are proud to have been selected by Arsenal Football Club to relight the iconic Emirates Stadium,” said Jeff Rogers, President of Musco World. “The new, efficient LED system will help Arsenal FC offer a truly unique environment for the world’s top athletes.”

Musco Lighting

Jason Van Wyk, +1 641-673-0411

media.relations@musco.com

. Musco has pioneered systems using metal halide and LED technologies that have made dramatic improvements in energy efficiency and provided affordable ways to control spill light and glare. Emirates Stadium will join a long list of facilities around the world to benefit from Musco’s state-of-the-art LED lighting solution, including the world’s largest rugby venue- Twickenham Stadium, the Houston Texans’ NRG Stadium, the Denver Broncos Field House, and the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center.

Arsenal’s Stadium and Facilities Director, John Beattie, said: “We have been in Emirates Stadium for nine seasons and need to ensure we have the best possible conditions for players and fans for the future. Permanent and temporary lighting solutions range from neighbourhood pitches to Olympic Games. Musco’s proposal meets our needs for top quality lighting within the ground on matchdays and varied in-stadia events.”

About Musco Lighting

New Floodlighting System Will Deliver Superior Efficiency and Light Control

As the third largest football stadium in England – with a capacity over 60,000 – Emirates Stadium needed a lighting provider that shared a mutual commitment in providing a superior player and fan experience. After a comprehensive evaluation process of floodlighting manufacturers, Musco, the global leader in sports lighting, was chosen as the ideal partner for this project. Musco has a global team of experts that partner with customers to plan, complete, and maintain a cost-effective, trouble-free lighting solution for their facility.

Arsenal Football Club has selected Musco Lighting to install new LED floodlights at Emirates Stadium in time for next season.

Installation of the new floodlighting system will be undertaken during the summer and will be ready to be switched on for the start of the 2015/16 season.

For nearly 40 years, Musco Lighting has specialised in the design and manufacture of sports and large area lighting solutions around the world

Sports | Fox News

Spiller.   (Dan Carpenter extra point is good). (10 plays, 49 yards. Manuel to Sammy Watkins.   (Dan Carpenter extra point is good). (11 plays, 64 yards. 9:23 Time Remaining.

Miami Touchdown – 7-yard pass from Ryan Tannehill to Mike Wallace.   (Caleb Sturgis extra point is good). (8 plays, 34 yards. Time of Drive: 3:02).

4th Quarter

Buffalo Field Goal – 32-yarder by Dan Carpenter.  10:32 Time Remaining. 3:15 Time Remaining. Time of Drive: 4:14).

Buffalo Field Goal – 38-yarder by Dan Carpenter.  1:54 Time Remaining. (6 plays, 77 yards.

Scoring Summary

1st Quarter

Buffalo Field Goal – 27-yarder by Dan Carpenter.  4:47 Time Remaining. (4 plays, 7 yards. Time of Drive: 6:08).

Buffalo Touchdown – 12-yard pass from E.J. Time of Drive: 5:25).

Buffalo Touchdown – 102-yard kickoff return by C.J. Time of Drive: 4:46).

Buffalo Field Goal – 27-yarder by Dan Carpenter.  0:22 Time Remaining. Time of Drive: 2:15).

3rd Quarter

Miami Field Goal – 34-yarder by Caleb Sturgis.  9:35 Time Remaining. Time of Drive: 1:38).

NFL Game Log – Miami at Buffalo. (6 plays, 40 yards. (6 plays, 22 yards. 0:13 Time Remaining. Time of Drive: 1:50).

2nd Quarter

Buffalo Field Goal – 31-yarder by Dan Carpenter.  10:22 Time Remaining. (13 plays, 64 yards

MASENO: THE EQUATOR CRISS CROSS URBAN CENTRE

This was after he had promised his host that he would establish an educational centre there. He did this by relocating to Nairobi from his residence in Kisumu, a city where his father used to reside too. These are besides the Principal’s office, the Deputy Principal’s office, the Senior Teacher’s office, the teachers’ staff room and theold teachers’ residential houses which were built between 1908 and 1930 that together have survived for a century and six years by the year 2012 thus the first established formal school in Kenya. Today by the year 2012, Anglican missionaries from England still visit the Maseno establishments for Christian, health and educational matters including the dioceses that got established from it as was deliberated on above.

Similarly, Maseno School excels in sports and performance arts like dramaand music both at the county and at national levels. Equator 1 and Equator 2 hostels for students at Siriba Campus of Maseno University are good examples of this fact.

TODAY’S MASENO. So, Maseno School offers only the O-level curriculum by the year 2012. The same was repeated when I travelled as a member of Kisumu’s Yosa Bima Football Club to play against Maseno’s Siriba Teachers Training College and Government Training Institute in both 1976 and 1978 respectively. After that, one should then retrace his or her footsteps along the murrum road back to the eastern gate.

The name Maseno was first pronounced by Bishop J.J. This is no other than the well known Maseno University. In this way, Maseno School got established such that besides being the pioneer formal educational institution in the country, it was a great gift to Kavirondo Gulf in which it is situated that covers the then South Nyanza and Central Nyanza that was later referred to as Nyanza Province and North Nyanza that was later referred to as Western Province until the establishment of counties was effected in the year 2012 in accordance with Kenya’s new constitution.

 

Maseno urban centre that is situated in Kisumu County of Nyanza region in western Kenya is one of the world’s privileged urban centers because the Equator passes through it. This was none other than Ogolla Wuod Ayieke who was the great great grand father of the former Patron of Gor Mahia Football Club, the former chairman of Kenya Football Federation, the former official of the Confederation of African Football and the former Member of Parliament for Kisumu Town West, Honourable Joab Omino. Willis of the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) in respect of a predominant tree in that area that had provided him with a convenient shade under which he sat in 1906. It is apparent that they were informed about this curriculum by the children of both the missionaries and the teachers who had come from Europe where the same was in place since the African learners wanted to be taught like them. For example, if a school’s name is Tree High School, it gets renamed as Tree School.

Otherwise, as is evident from the above, Maseno being a pioneer educational institution in Kenya and more or so a hub of education in western Kenya with evident successes on the same, the Government of Kenya had no option but to grant this small urban centre a higher learning institution in 1990. This means that from Maseno School’s main gate that is situated on its west, one will have to connect to the Kenya-Uganda Road up to the two equator landmarks that are positioned on either side of it then visit Trinity Christian Fellowship-Maseno Club-Maseno Law Courts-Maseno’s residential areas-the western rural outskirts of Maseno-Maseno University’s Maseno Campus-Maseno Mixed primary School-Maseno Girls’ Boarding Primary School-Maseno Shopping Centre-Maseno University’s Siriba Campus-Maseno Mission Hospital-Maseno Market-Maseno School-the Ministry of Agriculture’s Farmers’ Training Institute respectively. As one does so, he or she will cross the zigzag internal regional boundary between the former Nyanza and Western provinces or the current Kisumu County and Kakamega County once again plus the equator thus the crisscross factor at play. Otiende who was independent Kenya’s first Minister for Education, the Honorable Moody Awori who was the former Vice President of Kenya between the year 2002 and 2008, the independent Kenya’s first Vice President the Honorable Jaramogi Oginga Odinga who was the father of Kenya’s Prime Minister the Honorable Raila Odinga. It does similarly in the annual East Central Africa Secondary Schools Sports Championship in which it was champ in the year 2002, 2007 and in 2008. Despite the changes and advancement in the curriculums taught there, its name continues to be Maseno School. A headquarter was set up for each diocese, for example, Saint Stephen’s Cathedral in Kisumu City became the head office of Maseno South Diocese. A change was then effected such that carpentry and masonry were done away with in favor of an academic curriculum save for mathematics since similar to today it fits in both curriculums. However, Maseno’s history is far richer than it due to a great difference in their durations of existence.

On the other hand, Maseno School’s political list of its former students either at O-level, A-level or both includes some members of Kenya’s tenth parliament. In his autobiography entitled Not Yet Uhuru, we learn that his main mentor at this institution was the famous teacher from the United Kingdom known as Carey Francis. A good example is in Basketball in which it frequently emerges as champ in the annual Kenya Secondary Schools Sports National Championship since the year 2002. Secondly, the Cambridge University educated entomologist, the late Professor Thomas Odhiambo who was formerly a lecturer at the University of Nairobi and whose international academic profile is rich too similar to Professor Wasao’s was a former student of Maseno School. It is positioned near the world famous Mount Kenya in the east of the country. This can be seen with scrutiny from outside Maseno School’s principal’s office or else, one has to retrace the Kisumu route for a close observation since it is positioned some distance away.

Another example of the equator crisscross factor is the zigzag Nyanza-Western provincial boundary that runs along the eastern side of Maseno School-Maseno Mission Hospital-Siriba Campus in such a way that it crisscrosses the equator at certain points. This happened first in 1975 when I kept goal for my high school’s football team against Maseno School on their pitch. In other words, only parts of Maseno School-Maseno University’s Siriba Campus-the Ministry of Agriculture’s Farmers Training Institute lie on both the northern and the southern sides of the equator. He honored this promise later in the year by setting up Maseno School under the umbrella of the Church Missionary Society. Otherwise, the full primary school curriculum is offered in its two sister schools namely, Maseno Mixed Primary School which is a day school and Maseno Girls’ Boarding Primary School. As if not enough one may drive from Maseno direct to Kombewa Urban Centre in Seme, connect to the Kisumu Bondo Road by turning to the left, drive along it as if going towards Holo-Kisumu, before long, one will sight the above described Kit Mikaye on the right side of the road within the rural setting. It is positioned on the western side of Maseno School next to the Kisumu-Uganda road. Today, Maseno School is one of the elite national schools in Kenya. This means that from 1906 to date, certain teachers whose residences are located in the southern hemisphere go to work in the northern hemisphere and vice versa for those whose residences are positioned in the northern hemisphere. An amusing factor is that whereas Maseno has most facilities that qualify it status-wise as a town thus Maseno Town, it apparently sounds better to refer to it as Maseno Urban Centre due to its multiple of educational and professional training institutions which take the lion’s share of it besides being its basis too in contrast to its civic, business, shopping, social and recreational amenities.

Otherwise, in July 1998, the equator crisscross factor attracted the hosting of the 3rd International Drama Education Association or IDEA ’98 Festival to be held in the near by Kisumu City. However, one may choose to visit Maseno’s institutions selectively or as suits him or her but the lay out of this urban centre calls for the above suggested clockwise or anticlockwise tour guide especially the former one.

 

In addition, a visitor should not forget to walk through Maseno School’s eastern gate so as to view the tall equatorial trees more closely which are first sighted from the mid distant position as soon as one starts to walk between the two main soccer pitches towards the very gate. So, when the curriculum got changed from technical to academic then the school too got converted into an intermediate primary school then it doubled as a secondary school for the sake of O-level curriculum and later on into a high school for the sake of A-level curriculum. Imagine if Maseno School were to be transformed into another institution other than what it has been since 1906, will this not affect the tour flavor negatively even though the equator remains in place!

MASENO

 

To revisit the equator crisscross factor, it is so factual such that elsewhere within the vicinity, certain students and residents in the neighbourhood sleep night long on their beds with their heads north of the equator while their feet south of it or vice versa. This was soon after the Kenya-Uganda Railway had reached the Kisumu lake terminus in 1901 from Mombasa since this is the facility that enabled them to travel far into the countryside from the east coast of Africa. Another urban centre in Kenya through which the equator passes is Nanyuki Town. The upward trend continued such that after one century, the school now has one thousand students plus, for example, by the year 2011 the total number of students was one thousand and eighty five. Jaramogi set a record in mathematics at the very school before doing the same at Uganda’s Makerere University College. It is reportedly on record that the non sons of the chiefs performed better than theirs due hard and smart work in their training.

Positioned a marathon run away to the north-west of Kisumu City, overlooking the distant south low-lying expansive Lake Victoria that is the earth’s second largest lake after the United States’ Lake Superior, surrounded by the rocky Maseno Hills to the east, the undulating Luanda-banana rich area to the north and the rural Seme location to the west is Maseno urban centre of Kisumu County.

Maseno School’s compound plus the expansive land on which Maseno University is situated today was donated by Chief Ogolla Wuod Ayieke in response to Bishop Willis’ promise to establish learning and training institutions for the education of the sons of chiefs so that they could be prepared to lead after the retirement or the demise of their fathers. In addition, a request to be provided with one or two local resource persons who are conversant with this area’s geographical layout and historical background will be vital for the ultimate achievement of the objectives of the tour.

THE EQUATOR CRISSCROSS FACTOR

BACKGROUND STORY

TOUR GUIDE

It will be injustice done to Maseno if nothing is mentioned about how to tour it. Maseno North Diocese which covers the former North Nyanza, Maseno West Diocese which covers Siaya County and Maseno South Diocese which covers Kisumu County. He went on to become a Harvard University trained economist before serving his country in the same capacity at the Ministry of Economic Planning and Development headquarters in the capital city of Kenya, Nairobi.

On the other hand, a lion’s share of Maseno Urban Centre occupies the south of the equator in comparison to the north of it. So, they gave him the sons of their subjects too as a way of countering such a plan thus an interesting way of doing so as it seems to have been a gamble. This is because it is both an introduction and the climax of such a tour since it was this urban centre’s major founding phenomenon. This can be done with prior arrangement.

Come the year 1909, the first students at Maseno School who had initially attended lessons under a tree before the first classrooms were built in 1908 complained about the technical curriculum that they were being taught for reasons best known to them thus they demanded to be taught an academic curriculum. The sketch map below will be of much help for one who wants to tour Maseno thus it should be used in liaison with the tour guide descriptions above.

On the other hand, Bishop Willis became the first Principal of Maseno School and at about the same time he established the famous Kings College Budo in Uganda which was based on a similar model to Maseno School that was the training of the sons of Kings while Maseno’s was the training of the sons of chiefs. So, it might be injustice done to this part of Maseno if its sweet plantains are not tasted though it is not compulsory to do so. All these are situated on the gradual rising Maseno Hill sprawling on both sides of the 1970s proposed Mombasa-Lagos Trans Africa Highway or the Kenya-Uganda Road that people often refer to as Busia Road since it leads westwards to Busia Town which is situated at the border of Uganda and Kenya on either side of the divide.

In other words, the above information about Trinity Fellowship which has its roots in the Anglican Christian Mission at Maseno as Reverend Dawkins was originally a member of the same is a strong evidence of how most establishments in this urban centre owe their existence in one way or another to the Church Missionary Society. The academic list includes the Oxford University trained scientist Professor David Wasao who was the first Luo to become a professor. However, the difference was that while they flew over the equator, I played soccer on it at Maseno School and within its vicinity at both Siriba Teachers’ Training College and Maseno Government Training Institute.

On the other hand, I had never imagined the importance of being within the vicinity and crossing of the equator until I once read the comments of Sir Bobby Charlton from a Kenyan daily newspaper during his hey days in the English Football Association League that is now referred to as the English Football Premier League when he was a member of Manchester United Football Club in the early 1970s. Similarly, since students’ dormitories are situated in the northern hemisphere, those whose classrooms happen to be positioned in the southern hemisphere have to cross the equator in order to attend lessons there then do the same when returning to their dormitories later on.  

On the other hand, it is with reference to Maseno Anglican mission’s central position that the dioceses which got established later on were named according to their geographic directions from it as follows. Rather, the cool breeze brought about by the presence of several tall equatorial trees that do the wind breaking job, a variety of vast playing grounds that have soft evergreen grass and education related history of this place are the main reasons for the hosting of such games there.

COPYRIGHT: WILFRED OTIENO 2012

A visitor to Maseno should always remember that its main attractions are the equator marks which are easy to identify as they are positioned on both sides of the Kenya-Uganda Road. Reason being that the equator’s crisscross factor aside, its eastern suburbs on Maseno Hills have the attractive granitic tors which are part of the Nyanzian Kavirondian Pre-cambrian Rocks that geologists and geomorphologists believe to be the oldest on earth. After that, one should continue with the tour by walking a short distance to the south past the eastern gate of Maseno University’s Siriba Campus, cross the equator again though this might occur without realization, turn to the left and call in at the famous Maseno Mission Hospital that is positioned some short distance to the east. By the year 2012, this institution has extended beyond Maseno region into other urban centres in Kenya where it has constituent campuses. Most of them came up after Christian missionaries who belonged to the same society like Reverend Dawkins identified Maseno’s potential as being conducive for spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, establishing a health centre thus Maseno Mission Hospital, educational and or training institutions for the preparation of the children of the local community for their future careers. All these were due to the courtesy of the late Doctor Opiyo Mumma of the University of Nairobi’s Faculty of English Theatre Arts who had earlier on taught at Maseno School. The private one that may be compared to it in terms of having a conglomerate of educational institutions is the Kabarak establishments that include Kabarak Primary School-Kabarak Secondary School-Kabarak University that were founded and are owned by the former President of Kenya Honourable Daniel Arap Moi. He continues to do the same with the help of committed full time ministers of God who are spread country wide. However, for this and a whole tour flavor appeal to be realized, it is worth visiting Maseno School’s inside equator mark also by entering through its main gate that is positioned on its west, observe its compound and facilities in relation to the equator and according to the earlier descriptions on the same without forgetting the ancient Rock Church, students’ classrooms, dormitories, playing fields and teachers’ residences. Stephen’s Christian Institute of Commercial Training that was popularly known as CITC.

On the other hand, it is essential to make prior arrangements with the authorities of Maseno School, Maseno University and any other institution of interest that are mentioned above through a relevant tour agency if one is a serious domestic or foreign tourist. To its credit, the mission also established new learning institutions in these dioceses. In the year 2006, Maseno School held its centenary anniversary with the head of state the Honourable Mwai Kibaki as the guest of honour.

The site of Maseno, its average size, its concentrated residential layout on a hill that rises gradually from the southern hemisphere then slopes abruptly after crossing the equator in the northern hemisphere, the several winding rural footpaths and seasonal roads, the all weather road of the 1970s proposed Mombasa-Lagos Trans Africa Highway that is referred to as the Kenya-Uganda Road, the village-like high equatorial trees’ canopy around the equator, the cool equatorial weather that is influenced at intervals by the contrasting prevailing winds due to being positioned within the lake region thus the lake equatorial climate, the attractive rural vegetation and the undulating Maseno suburbs besides its simplicity make it an extra special urban centre worth visiting at least once in a life time.

THE EQUATOR CRISS CROSS URBAN CENTRE

Otherwise, other pioneering Christian educational centres in Kenya that are comparable to Maseno on similar societal influence unto the establishment of urban centres are the alliance of Protestant Churches’ founded Alliance Boys’ High School and Alliance Girls’ High School that are situated near Kikuyu Trading Centre in Kiambu County, the Catholic Church founded Saint Mary’s Yala Boys’ High School near Yala Trading Centre in Siaya County, Mukumu Boys’ Seminary-Mukumu Girls’ Primary Boarding School-Mukumu Girls’ High School near Khayega Trading Centre in Kakamega County, Lwak Girls’ Primary School-Lwak Girls’ High School near Nyilima in Siaya County and Saint Mary’s Mosocho Boys’ Boarding Intermediate Primary School-Cardinal Otung’a High School Mosocho near Mosocho Trading Centre in Kisii County. Therefore, they were career based thus the name Maseno School befitted them in comparison to others like Maseno Secondary School, Maseno High School or Maseno Academy which portray more of academic education than technical education. What led him to do so was the warm welcome that had been accorded to him by the Luo Chief of that area at that time. By doing so, his target was to reach the whole of the Kenyan schools’ Christian Union fraternity. On the other hand, people also crisscross both of them frequently such that the boundary issue used to make the Luos of the former Nyanza Province and the Luhyias of the former Western Province to identify their land limits wrongly since they mix freely in this border region similar to other regional and international ones.

By

So, the founding of Maseno urban centre had its basis on the establishment of an Anglican Mission by the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) and Maseno School in 1906 thus the Rock Church and theancient brick classrooms of Maseno School which were built in 1908 still stand strong as monumental evidences for the establishment of this Christian mission. After that one should retrace his or her footsteps to the eastern gate of Maseno University, enter through it so as to visit Siriba Campus where he or she ought to request to be taken to Equator 1 and Equator 2 university students’ hostels so as to experience the equator crisscross factor of sleeping with parts of one’s body in either hemispheres of the earth.

Otherwise, an anticlockwise tour of Maseno on foot from the equator mark southwards along the Kenya-Uganda Road may also be conducted if one chooses not to use the clockwise one before embarking on the rural tour of Maseno hills to the east and the neighbouring extensive rural Seme region to the west. This resulted in an increase of the number of African students from the initial four to one hundred and fifty by the year 1911.   

From there, one should walk through Siriba Campus towards its main gate in the west, cross the Kenya-Uganda road, enter through the main gate of Maseno University into Maseno Campus so as to tour it, come out through the very gate that was used to enter into this compound earlier on, walk slightly southward along the main road so as to visit Maseno Mixed Primary School that is a day school and Maseno Girls’ Boarding Primary School that are positioned on the right hand of the road adjacent to Maseno University’s Main Campus. At some stage afterwards, the intermediate primary school curriculum was done away with in favour of the O-level one which had doubled with it within the same institution, then the A-level one was added afterwards until the 8-4-4 system of education in which the A-level curriculum has no place was introduced in Kenya in the mid 1980s. After that, one should retrace his or her footsteps along the Kenya-Uganda Road slightly towards the north then cross to the right towards the east so as to visit Maseno shopping centre that is positioned slightly to the south of Siriba campus.

In the past, the above border factor used to cause the Luo and the Luhyia natives of Maseno tempers to flare up as concerned the true ownership of the former Siriba Teachers Training College and Maseno School. In Maseno’s case, the chiefs felt that after training them then Bishop Willis would take their sons to his country which was Great Britain for further studies such that on completion they would not return but work there. It is an establishment worth visiting by Christians especially student members of Christian unions in schools for spiritual lessons because it is a centre with relevant facilities and teaching aids on the same. He authored certain mathematics text books that were used to teach that subject in Kenyan schools in the past before ssp mathematics that was referred to as new mathematics of the early 1970s to the late 1980s was introduced.

So, arrival at the Kenya-Uganda road’s twin principal equator mark, viewing it and taking photos there alone are not enough unless one is in a hurry or simply wants to be on record as having stepped on the equator. Once one goes out of this second gate onto the eastern side of the school compound, it is advisable to first turn left then walk along the outside murrum road that surrounds this school on its northern frontier up to its north west where it connects to the Kenya-Uganda Road that had been used earlier on to enter Maseno School after having crossed that road’s equator mark that now lies slightly to the south. This was for the convenience of making visits to Maseno by drama officials, thespians and visitors from around the world that had come to participate or to attend the world drama performances that were being held in Africa for the first time. After the demise of Reverend Dawkins in 1997, his son continued on with the work from where he had left to date. It sounds so befitting such that several school authorities in the western part of Kenya have renamed their institutions by omitting the titles of primary, secondary or high so that they sound like Maseno’s even if theirs are not befitting. Since bananas are displayed there in plenty, one may buy some as this area is situated in the neihbourhood of the Luanda-banana rich plantations. Far south, a view of the magnificent second largest lake on earth, Lake Victoria, is unavoidable. These are, the Honorable Njeru Githae who is the Minister for Finance, the Honorable Otieno Kajwan’g who is the Minister for Immigration and is a lawyer by profession, the Honorable Maalim Mohammed who is the Deputy Speaker and is also a lawyer by profession and Honorable Olago Aluoch who is the Member of Parliament for Kisumu West and is also a lawyer by profession. His father was also a former student of Maseno School thus a great coincidence. He is best remembered as the founder of the Lake Victoria Mbita based International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology thus ICIPE. It also includes some members of Kenya’s first parliament. In other words, if Maseno had enough hotel and theatre facilities plus an assurance of packed halls like the city of Kisumu by that time then the festival would have been held there.

As much as the above described experiences also apply to Kenyan couples who wed on the equator at Maseno or within its vicinity, the same is not in line with the frequent hosting of high school games at Maseno School. This argument used to be on whether these institutions belonged to the former Western Province’s Kakamega District before its western part got curved out to become Vihiga District though both have now been reunited and have been renamed Kakamega County or, to the former Nyanza Province’s Kisumu District that is now called Kisumu County and to which Maseno belongs officially.

After that, one should retrace his or her footsteps back to the Kenya-Uganda Road that one drove along on initial entry into Maseno Town from Kisumu, walk along it northwards, view the police station-law courts-public residences-Agricultural Farmers Training Institute that are situated on the west or the left side of this road, even visit Maseno’s western rural outskirts, retrace footsteps to the Kenya-Uganda Road on the east, visit Trinity Fellowship Centre and Maseno Club that are situated on the right side of this main road after which one returns to the original equator marks that are visible on both sides of the same road which connects to the one that leads to the main entrance of Maseno School on its west that was used earlier on to start the tour.

Manchester United players’ experience of flying over the equator prepared me for two practical ones that were to take place a few years ahead such that when the time came, they made me to understand how much crossing the equator had meant to them. The above referred comments were made by him after he and members of the above named football club had flown over the equator and landed in one of the southern hemisphere’s Pacific countries of Australasia for tours and the playing of build up football matches during the off season of the English football league. Alternatively, one may choose to use the seasonal weather rural road from Maseno that runs through Seme region from the north east to Holo Market Centre then connect to Kisumu-Bondo Road by turning right and drive along it then similar to the immediate above guide one will sight Kit Mikaye on the left. This was after he had convinced the organizers of the world drama festival during its second session that was held in Australia in 1995 about the suitability of holding the event in Kisumu City due to the equator crisscross factor at Maseno. The experience of flying over and across the zero degree principal latitude was a great excitement to all the team members in comparison to the international football fans’ reception that awaited them ahead.

THE END

Otherwise, people wonder why this institution was named Maseno School instead of Maseno Secondary School, Maseno High school or Maseno Senior Academy. However, Maseno contrasts Nanyuki and perhaps any other urban centre around the globe that is situated on the equator due to its full urban concentration around it within a minimal area that sprawls on both sides of the earth’s mid circumference.

As for Trinity Fellowshipthat wasmentioned above as one of the establishments in Maseno urban centre, it is a Christine ministry which was founded by an Anglican missionary from England known as Reverend Dawkins. The above referred tree is called Oseno in the Dholuo language of the Luo tribe or Luseno in the dialect of the Banyore sub-tribe of the Luhyia communitythus these traditional African names guided him in giving that place the name Maseno. In the year 2006, Maseno School emerged as the winner of the International Federation of Basketball Associations or FIBA under 18 Championship for the first time in the city of Durban in South Africa. However, the official headquarters of this ministry remains at Maseno. At that time, he was on his way to Kabaka’s Buganda Kingdom in the present day country of Uganda where the above mentioned mission had already been established earlier on. In other words, its student catchment area covers the whole of Kenya thus it is given the priority to select pupils who perform best in the annual national primary schools examination before the county schools which used to be referred to as the provincial and the district schools do the same. A good example is Maseno University Kisumu City Campus at Varsity Plaza in unison with Maseno University Kisumu Hotel that is the practical centre for its faculty of nutrition hospitality and, Maseno University Bondo Campus that in 2012 established Maseno University Bondo Campus’ Kisumu City Teaching Centre at the former Maseno South Diocese’s St. In other words, a good time has to be set aside for touring Maseno by starting from Maseno School’s western gate clockwise or anticlockwise. He has a rich international academic profile besides being the founder and the Chancellor of the Great lakes University of Kisumu. Otherwise, as is evident from the above names of Oseno and Luseno, both the Luo and the Luhyia tribes as neighbours within this locality are definitely natives of Maseno area.

The above tour guide is a clockwise recommended one after which the eastern rural outskirts of Maseno that include Maseno Hills that are home to the granitic tor rocks, the neighbouring extensive rural Seme regionthat is situated to the west and in which the unique Luo myth related and the world re-known Kit Mikaye granitic tor is positioned, may be visited. The same applies to students who leave the northern hemisphere so as to play ball games on one of the playing pitches that is positioned in the southern hemisphere  thus the equator crisscross factor.

As for the Maseno School Students’ Alumni, those who were educated there include some of Kenya’s great public personalities as who is who in the academic-corporate-business-political-professional fields. It is also important to ask the school authorities for the ancient available photographs and records on the rich history of this institution. This was in 1954 after he had become a born again Christian. These are the Honorable J.D. However, all these happened after Reverend Willis had identified the same and started similar work at Maseno as was described earlier on thus they supported him on their arrival there. This was his way of thanking the Maseno community for their hospitality. One will notice that new buildings have been erected at Maseno School of late and they can easily be differentiated from the old ones since they have modern architectural designs and they appear new to an observer.

As its name suggests, Maseno Urban Centre is not only home to Maseno School but to the Ministry of Agriculture’s Farmers Training Institute-the Trinity Fellowship Headquarters-Maseno University that is situated where Siriba Teachers Training College and the Government Training Institute were once located-Maseno Mission Hospital-Maseno Club-Maseno Mixed Day Primary School-Maseno Girls’ Primary Boarding School- Maseno Shopping Centre-Maseno Market-Maseno Post Office-Telkom Kenya Maseno-Maseno Police station-Maseno Law Courts-the Kenya Government’s Administration Offices-Maseno Residential Estates-Chrisco Church Maseno-Maseno Petrol Station. This is because the way Maseno’s layout is spread out is such that starting a tour from any other point besides the above recommended Maseno School will make it lose its flavor thus it has to start with a bang from it. It is worth to note that at a certain stage, Maseno School admitted student girls such that it became a mixed school. Maseno Schools’ Rugby team performs well too in the annual Kenya and in the annual East African secondary schools sports competitions in which it also emerges as champ often.

Position-wise in relation to the equator, Maseno School occupies both the earth’s northern and southern hemispheres. However, Maseno’s story is so unique such that it attracted a university before any of them as a public educational institution. It is worth to note that it was named so when the first subjects which were on offer were tailored to meet the learners’ self reliance. For example, Butere Girls High School in Maseno North Diocese, Ng’iya Girls High School in Maseno West Diocese and Kisumu Day High School that similar to Maseno Schoolis a boys’ schoolin Maseno South Diocese. To a Kenyan based citizen, such might not be experiences worth boasting about but to an alien, they are historical occurrences that deserve recording thus my joy too similar to Sir Bobby Charlton’s. Its objectives include ministering the word of God on spiritual salvation to students in schools and teaching them on how to maintain the same as they serve the almighty. This may be done by retracing the all weather Maseno-Kisumu Road up to Kisumu-Kisian Junction then connect to Kisumu-Bondo Road by turning to the right, drive towards Holo Market, by pass it then continue driving towards Kombewa Urban Centre and before one reaches there, a conspicuous large and high multiple stone layer feature will be sighted on the left hand side of the rural setting thus the Kit Mikaye. It is unique that such a tour unlike many others starts with a climax the way Kenya’s Akamba benga music does contrary to Kenya’s Luo-Luhyia-Kikuyu-Kalenjin benga music and other world music. For a long time, it has been among the best performing schools at ‘O’-Level and in the former ‘A’-Level national examinations before Kenya reverted to the 8-4-4 system of education in the mid 1980s.

From this point, one should visit the former Western Province that is now Kakamega County’s Maseno Market that is a stone throw away thus crossing a former provincial boundary that is now a county boundary. Both urban centers have official man-made landmarks of international standards for the identification of the equator. On the establishment of Butere Girls’ High school and Ng’iya Girls High School, the student girls at Maseno School got transferred there.

On the side of the professionals, the late Barack Obama Senior who was the father of the President of the United States of America, Barack Obama Junior, was also a student at Maseno School among many other professionals whose list similar to the corporate and the business ones is too long to be included here-in. In addition, he was referred to as the Science Face of Africa after he met five sitting heads of African states at a round table in the capital city of Botswana thus Gaborone in order to sell his vision for scientific research and application of the findings in the African continent for better livelihood of its people.

MAP OF MASENO

Wilfred Otieno

Therefore, Maseno as a simple yet an average in size urban centre that most people only consider to be a transit point thus overlooking its geographical set up that bear its rich historical background as has been described above, make it a place worth visiting for a study tour, a wedding, sports events or an enjoyable travel by crisscrossing the equator from one hemisphere to another at will on the globe thus on top of the planet earth.  At the end of the day, one would have made history and set a personal record worth narrating to grandchildren in future. He was the Principal of Maseno School from 1928 to 1940 after which he relocated to Alliance High School in Kikuyu

Are u a Wonderful or Blackjack or both?

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I am both! More of a Blackjack though. My favourites are:

Boy groups – Big Bang, Dalmatian, Bock B, 2AM.

Girl groups – SNSD, WG, 2NE1, Brown Eyed Girls.

I think i’m more of a wonderful than a blackjack! My faves would be db5k, mblaq, 2pm, wg, 2ne1.

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. I’m also a SONE!

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I’m ELF / Blackjack :D

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I am a wonderful…i have alot of favorite boy and girl band that i like..my most fav boy band is super junior too..same as you lol

I’m a wonderful blackjack :) both groups are amazing at what they do :) I’m also a SONE,elf,VIP and shawol….tbh I don’t think there’s any groups that I hate lol

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I love both! But I like 2NE1 a little more :)

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Im both and thier my favorite. Who’s your favorite k-pop bands (boy or girl) my fav boy band is Super Junior!

Best Answer:  I’m both, but I’d have to say I’m more of a Blackjack. Who’s your favorite k-pop bands (boy or girl) my fav boy band is Super Junior!

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Are u a Wonderful or Blackjack or both? | Yahoo Answers

Are u a Wonderful or Blackjack or both?

i’m a s?ne and a Blackjack, my favorite boy band is BigBang and my favorite girl band is SNSD ^_^

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Im both and thier my favorite

Nokia Alcatel-Lucent deal would make a complementary patent portfolio

wireless operators, for the sake of competition,” he said. The pricing of major carrier equipment from the likes of Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent is critically important to how carriers meet their bottom lines.

Lexinnova analyzed hundreds of patents held by the two companies to reach its general conclusion about the possible deal’s impact on their combined patents.News of a potential deal was disclosed by the two companies early Tuesday.The companies said in a brief statement that they are in “advanced discussions” about a stock offer by Nokia for Alcatel-Lucent, but warned there is “no certainty at this stage that these discussions will result in any agreement or transaction.”

“While the two companies have adjacent technologies, there is limited overlap in them, so this results in a good combined portfolio with the whole of the telecom technology stack,” said Aditya Awasthi, director of client services at Lexinnova, a patent analytics company based in Houston.. Neither Nokia nor Alcatel-Lucent is really big enough to compete with Huawei in particular on a worldwide basis.”He said Huawei has been stymied in the U.S. Huawei has denied any risks exist.

The possible acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent of France by Finland-based Nokia would bring together complementary patent portfolios and increase their scale against larger global competitors, analysts said Tuesday.

Nokia Alcatel-Lucent deal would make a complementary patent portfolio | Computerworld

Jack Gold, an analyst at J. carriers AT&T, Verizon and Sprint declined to comment on the possible deal.Still, there’s little question that the carriers will watch carefully as events unfold, especially since Alcatel-Lucent has already struck equipment deals with both AT&T and Verizon. Other analysts also included Cisco in that group.

U.S. due to the fears of Chinese spying potential, “but in the rest of the world they have been quite aggressive and have had some big wins.”

Patent prowess could play an important role in the ability of a combined company to compete against larger rivals Ericsson of Sweden and Huawei of China , at least globally, if not in the U.S. Having a larger patent portfolio willbe more important as wired and wireless networks converge to handle video and other rich content, especially with the advent of faster 5G wireless technologies in coming years.

Combined revenues for Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent companies were $27 billion in 2014, which was slightly larger than either Ericsson or Huawei.

Nokia’s patents primarily cover technology used for communications between smartphones and cell towers equipped with base stations that are provisioned with routers and other gear.Meanwhile, Alcatel-Lucent’s patents are more concentrated on communications beyond the base stations to the backhaul, which is often over fiber optic cable.

If Nokia acquires Alcatel-Lucent, carriers in the U.S. Gold Associates, said both companies may see the need to combine to “keep the competitors at bay…. Huawei networking gear isn’t widely used in the U.S., largely because a congressional report in 2012 raised concerns about the national security risks behind use of networking equipment from a China-based company. would face having just three major core network gear options: Nokia, Ericsson and Samsung, said Gartner analyst Bill Menezes.”A question this raises is whether U.S. regulators would take another look at allowing a big global vendor such as Huawei to provide core infrastructure to U.S